A topographic map, also known as a contour map, is a map that shows the shape of the land using contour lines.
Sediment- The material moved by erosion
Deposition - The laying down of sediment that changes the shape of the land
Gravity - The force that pulls rock an soil down slopes.
Landslide - The most destructive type of mass movement. Rock and soil slide quickly down a steep slope.
Mudslide - Rapid movement of a mixture of water, rock and soil.
Slump - A mass of rock and soil suddenly slips down in one large mass.
Creep - The very slow downhill movement of rock and soil.
Water Erosion and Deposition
Water is the major agent of erosion on the planet.
Runoff - is all of the remaining water that moves over the surface of the Earth.
Rills- tiny grooves in the soil caused by runoff.
Gullies larger grooves or channels in the soil that carry runoff. They only hold water when it rains.
Streams- A channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope.
Rivers- A large stream
Erosion by Rivers - Through erosion, a river creates valley, waterfalls, flood plains , meanders, and oxbow lakes.
Waterfalls - may occur where a river meets an area of rock that is very hard and erodes slowly.
Meander- a looplike bend in the course of the river.
Flood Plain- The flat, wide area of land along a river is a flood plain.
Oxbow Lakes- is a meander that has been cut off from the river. Oxbows may form when a river floods.
Water deposits sediment to form;
Alluvial Fan- a wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range.
Deltas- Sediment deposited wehere a river flows into an ocean or lake builds up a landform called a delta
Groundwater - the term geologists use for underground water. Water that is not runoff or is not evaporated is called groundwater.
stalactite- a deposit that hangs like and icicle from the roof of a cave is called a stalactite.
stalagmite - a slow build up of calcite on a cave floor that is the result of dripping calcite and eroding limestone is a stalagmite.
Karst Topography- If the roof of a cave collapses because of the erosion of the underlying limestone, the result is a depression called a sinkhole. This type of landscape, formed by the weakening and eventual "caving in" of weathered limestone is Karst Topography.
The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Cell - The basic unit of structure and function in a living thing.
Cells perform the basic processes that keep organisms alive.
Most cells are microscopic.
Cell membrane - the cell membrane forms the outside boundary of the cell.
Nucleus - the control center that directs the cell's activities and contains information that determines the organisms characteristics.
Cytoplasm - the area between the cell membrane and nucleus is called the cytoplasm. This jellylike substance contains all of the cell organelles.
Mitochondria - The "powerhouse" of the cell. These organelles are responsible for the "fuel" or energy use of the cell.
Ribosomes - protein synthesis takes place here. Some ribosomes are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and some float free in the cytoplasm.
Lysosomes - The "clean up crew" of the cell. Their job is to break down old or unneeded parts of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum - The "roadways" of the cell. There are two types of ER, smooth and rough. The rough ER contains ribosomes to help with protein synthesis.
Golgi Apparatus - The "shippers" of the cell. These organelles are responsible for modifying or changing the materials in the cell and readying them for transport.
Tissue - a group of similar cells that perform the same function.
There are four (4) types of tissue:
Muscle Tissue - can contract or shorten and makes your body move
Nerve Tissue - carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. It directs and controls the body.
Connective Tissue - provides support for your body and connects all its parts. Bone, fat, and blood are all connective tissues.
Epithelial Tissue - covers the surfaces of your body both inside and out.
Organ - an organ is a structure that is composed of different types of tissue. An organ performs a specific job that is usually more complex than that of a tissue.
The heart, lungs, liver and pancreas are examples of organs.
Organ System - a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. Your heart is part of an organ system called the circulatory system. There are 11 organ systems.
Homeostasis - The process by which and organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.
Stress disturbs homeostasis.
Adrenaline is a chemical your body produces that causes many changes in the body. The changes help the body to prepare for fight or flight.
Wellness - Being at your best possible level of health.
The three components of wellness are:
Physical Health- Consists of how welll the body functions.
Mental Health - consists of how you feel about yourself.
Social Health - how well you get along with other people.
Peer Pressure- consists of pressure from your friends and classmates to behave in certain ways.
The Skeletal System
The Skeletal System has five major functions.
It provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your internal organs, produces blood cells, and stores certain materials until your body needs them.
You are responsible for knowing the bones of the body that we learned in class.
The function of the skeletal system is to:
1. Provide shape and support
2. enable movement
3. protect internal organs
4. produces blood cells
5. stores materials
Joints allow the body to move.
Movable joints allow the body to make a wide range of motion.
There are four types of movable joints.
Ball and Socket - hip/shoulder - provide widest range of motion
Gliding - wrist and ankle- flexing
Pivot - neck - turning left and right.
Hinge - knee and elbow - allow for back and forth motion only
You need to exercise regularly and eat healthy to keep your bones healthy.
Injuries to the skeletal system bones and joints can be prevented. These injuries can be diagnosed with technology such as X-ray ( for bone injuries ) and MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging..( for soft tissue injuries)
There are two types of muscles..
Voluntary Muscles -These are muscles that you can control. You must send messages to the brain and ask for these muscles to do work. Skeletal muscle which is striated (striped), is this type of muscle. Skeletal muscles work in pairs to get the job done. One muscle contracts while the other muscle shortens to make bones move.
Involuntary Muscles- These are muscles that work without you telling them to. Your heart orcardiac muscle and the smooth muscles that line your stomach and intestines are involuntary muscles.
The function of the skin is to:
1. cover and protect the body from injury and infection
2. help regulate temperature
3. help to excrete wastes
4. gather information about the environment
5. produce vitamin D
There are two layers of the skin.
The Epidermis is the top layer of the skin
The Dermis is the lower layer of the skin.
Hair follicles are located in the dermis and they are responsible for hair growth.
Pores are tiny openings in the skin that allow sweat from perspiration to escape the body.
Cancer is a disease in which some body cells divide uncontrollably.
Acne is a skin bacterial infection that can be caused by too much oil on the surface of the skin and can be difficult to control
The Digestive System
The Functions of the Digestive System
First, it breaks down food into molecules the body can use. Then, the molecules are absorbed into the blood and carried throughout the body. Finally, wastes are eliminated from the body.
There are two types of digestion
Mechanical Digestion - The physical destruction or digestion of food. This begins in the mouth and continues in the esophagus and stomach as PERISTALSIS helps break down food into smaller pieces.
Chemical Digestion - the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones through the use of enzymes. This begins in the mouth with salivary amylase and continues in the other organs involved in digestion.
Enzymes An enzyme is a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
1. Mouth - the digestive system begins here with the initial mechanical and chemical digestion of our food . The teeth and tongue work hard to move and break down food . The salivary glands secrete saliva to begin the initial breakdown of starches into simple sugar molecules.
2. Esophagus - a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. This 25cm long tube uses peristalsis to move food to the stomach.
Epiglottis - a flap of tissue that moves in front of the trachea (windpipe) when you swallow so that food goes down the esophagus.
Peristalsis - The involuntary waves of muscle contraction that occur in the esophagus and in other organs of the digestive system.
3. Stomach - a "J" shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen. As you eat your stomach expands to hold the food that you swallow. Most can have a capacity of about 2 liters.
Peristalsis continues here.
Hydrochloric Acid - a very strong acid that is produced in the stomach to prevent bacteria from growing and to further break down food through chemical digestion.
Pepsin- an enzyme that is produced in the stomach and that breaks down proteins into shorter chains of amino acids.
4. Small Intestine- Almost all chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine . The small intestine is not small at all! In fact, the small intestine is 7.5meters long. It has gotten its name because of the diameter of the opening not because of its length or size.
Function: To move materials throughout the body
-carbon dioxide and other wastes
3 Types of Circulation
System - between heart to body systems
Pulmonary - between heart and lungs
Coronary - within the heart
Coronary - The flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart.
The heart receives the oxygen and nutrients that it needs from the blood. The blood also carries away wastes from the heart's cells.
Pulmonary - The flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
Systemic - The flow of the blood to the other systems and throughout the rest of the body. It moves oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood to organs and body tissues. It returns (oxygen-poor) blood to the heart.
Parts of the Circulatory System
Blood Vessels: Carry the blood to every part of your body.
All three blood vessels transport (move) blood.
Capillaries are only one cell thick
Arteries and veins have 3 layers.
Veins have valves.
carry blood away from the heart ARTERIES- AWAY
Thick elastic walls made of connective tissue and smooth muscle tissue
Oxygen rich blood...except PULMONARY ARTERIES which are carrying un- oxygenated blood to the lungs.
blood vessels that carry blod back to the heart
have one-way valves that keep blood moving toward the heart.
one cell thick
allow for the diffusion (passing through) of oxygen rich blood, nutrients, antibodies, hormones etc into the body organs and tissues.
allow for the exchange of waste from the cells into the bloodstream to return to the heart for disposal.
Blood Pressure: The force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels.
Measured with a Sphygmomanometer. (UGH)..
Heart : An organ made of cardiac muscle tissue
-located behind your breastbone, called the sternum, and between your lungs
-has four compartments called chambers
-the two upper chambers are the atria
-the two lower chambers are the ventricles
-valves separate the atria and ventricles to make sure that blood only flows one-way.
-the septum is a wall of tissue that separates the chambers.
There are four parts to the blood which is responsible for the transporting of the nutrients and the oxygen to the body.
Red Blood Cells (Erythocytes) Made in the bone marrow, carry the determiner for your blood type, carry hemoglobin (oxygen attaches to),and there are approximately 1 billion of these in 2/3 drops of blood.
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Made in the bone marrow, they are the soldiers or fighters that will fend off illness. They are bigger than the red blood cells but there are less of them unless you are sick or hurt. They surround or envelop germs.
Plasma- liquid part of the blood that is somewhat yellowish in color. It contains and carries all of the nutrients, hormones, and antibodies that the blood transports.
Platelets- blood clotters... prevent too much bleeding.
There are four blood types that you should be aware of.
A,B,AB, and O.
You need to know which blood types can safely be transfused to which type of patient blood type.
The Universal Recipient is AB
The Universal Donor is O.
YOU MUST ALSO KNOW THE PATH OF THE BLOOD THROUGH THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM..
REMEMBER RIGHT ---RETURN
Vein....Return to heart
Check out this website for other info that can be helpful.
Human Physiology ..
Here is our powerpoint from class on the 8 biomes